By the same authors

Intraspecific and interspecific scaling of calcaneus in Carnivora

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Publication details

Title of host publicationComparative Biochemistry and Physiology
DatePublished - 2006
Original languageEnglish
ISBN (Electronic)1095-6433


Biewener (1989) defined effective mechanical advantage (EMA) as the ratio of the extensor muscle moment arm (r) to the moment arm of the ground reaction force (R). The calcanii of 29 specimens (belonging to 16 species) of Felidae, and that of 30 specimens of dogs (from 24 breeds), were studied by measuring r, the total length (TL) and the sagittal and transverse diameters (DS and DT) just ahead of the tibial articulation. The following regressions were calculated: TL, r, DS and DT, respectively, to body mass; r vs. TL, and r/TL vs body mass. Both in the intraspecific sample (dogs) and in the interspecific sample (Felidae) TL scales isometrically, the ratio r/TL slowly increases with body mass, and r scales to TL with negative allometry. Regarding diameters, sagittal diameter increases with positive allometry in Felidae and isometrically in dogs, while the transverse diameter scales isometrically in Felidae and with positive allometry in dogs. An
exponent of 0.4 has been predicted for the scaling of moment arm against body mass (Castiella and Casinos, 1990). This value is included in the confidence intervals calculated for the regression r vs body mass either for Felidae or for dogs. Since r/R increases with body mass (Biewener, 1989), according to the present results, R should decrease with body mass.
1. Biewener, A.A., 1989. Science 245, 45.
2. Castiella, M.J., Casinos, A., 1990. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 11, 165.

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