Introducing MultilingProfiler: An adaptable tool for analysing the vocabulary in French, German, and Spanish texts

Natalie Eloise Finlayson*, Emma Marsden, Laurence Anthony

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vocabulary profiling with computational tools and word lists is an established step in the development of pedagogical materials for learners of English. However, existing tools and word lists lack sensitivity to the orthographical, morphological, and grammatical systems of highly inflected and declined languages. This limits the degree to which lexical profiling can be usefully implemented in the creation of materials intended for use with beginner/low-intermediate learners of such languages who have only partial knowledge of these systems.
In this article, we present MultilingProfiler, a vocabulary profiling tool designed to support nuanced profiling of texts in French, German, and Spanish. We introduce the concept of ‘bespoke’ word families tailored to the needs of learners at various stages of development, and outline key features of the tool that operationalise this concept (the functionality to select which inflected, derived, and multiword forms of headwords are included in the profile; sensitivity to orthographical systems; embedded word lists aligning with specific programs of study; and cumulative word lists that grow with learner knowledge). We present two case studies that find MultilingProfiler’s features to be effective in highlighting potential mismatches between the lexical demands of texts and the expected knowledge of learners, and consider applications of the tool in research methods.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103122
Number of pages22
Early online date30 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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