Is an Emphasis on Dignity, Honor and Face more an Attribute of Individuals or of Cultural Groups?

Peter B. Smith*, Matthew J. Easterbrook, Yasin Koc, Vivian Miu Chi Lun, Dona Papastylianou, Lusine Grigoryan, Claudio Torres, Maria Efremova, Bushra Hassan, Ammar Abbas, Abd Halim Ahmad, Ahmed al-Bayati, Heyla A. Selim, Joel Anderson, Susan E. Cross, Gisela Isabel Delfino, Vladimer Gamsakhurdia, Alin Gavreliuc, Dana Gavreliuc, Pelin GulCeren Günsoy, Anna Hakobjanyan, Siugmin Lay, Olga Lopukhova, Ping Hu, Diane Sunar, Maria Luisa Mendes Texeira, Doriana Tripodi, Paola Eunice Diaz Rivera, Yvette van Osch, Masaki Yuki, Natsuki Ogusu, Catherine T. Kwantes, Rolando Diaz-Loving, Lorena Pérez-Floriano, Trawin Chaleeraktrakoon, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study compares the individual-level and sample-level predictive utility of a measure of the cultural logics of dignity, honor, and face. University students in 29 samples from 24 nations used a simple measure to rate their perceptions of the interpersonal cultural logic characterizing their local culture. The nomological net of these measures was then explored. Key dependent measures included three different facets of independent versus interdependent self-construal, relevant attitudes and values, reported handling of actual interpersonal conflicts, and responses to normative settings. Multilevel analyses revealed both individual- and sample-level effects but the dignity measure showed more individual-level effects, whereas sample-level effects were relatively more important with the face measure. The implications of this contrast are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-126
Number of pages32
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number2-3
Early online date14 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 SAGE Publications.


  • cultural difference
  • cultural logic
  • dignity
  • face
  • honour
  • self-construal

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