Macro- and microclimatic interactions can drive variation in species' habitat associations

Rachel M. Pateman*, Chris D. Thomas, Scott A L Hayward, Jane K. Hill

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Many species are more restricted in their habitat associations at the leading edges of their range margins, but some species have broadened their habitat associations in these regions during recent climate change. We examine the effects of multiple, interacting climatic variables on spatial and temporal patterns of species' habitat associations, using the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, in Britain, as our model taxon. Our analyses reveal that this species, traditionally regarded as a woodland-dependent insect, is less restricted to woodland in regions with warmer winters and warmer and wetter summers. In addition, over the past 40 years of climate change, the species has become less restricted to woodland in locations where temperature and summer rainfall have increased most. We show that these patterns arise mechanistically because larval growth rates are slower in open (i.e. nonwoodland) habitats associated with colder microclimates in winter and greater host plant desiccation in summer. We conclude that macro- and microclimatic interactions drive variation in species' habitat associations, which for our study species resulted predominantly in a widening of habitat associations under climate change. However, species vary in their climatic and nonclimatic requirements, and so complex spatial and temporal patterns of changes in habitat associations are likely to be observed in future as the climate changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)556-566
Number of pages11
JournalGlobal Change Biology
Issue number2
Early online date26 Nov 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016

Bibliographical note

© 2015 The Authors


  • Pararge aegeria
  • Climate change
  • Invasion
  • Lepidoptera
  • Niche breadth
  • Range expansion
  • Speckled wood

Cite this