Measurements of nitric oxide and ammonia soil fluxes from a wet savanna ecosystem site in West Africa during the DACCIWA field campaign

Federica Pacifico*, Claire Delon, Corinne Jambert, Pierre Durand, Eleanor Morris, Mat J. Evans, Fabienne Lohou, Solene Derrien, Venance H.E. Donnou, Arnaud V. Houeto, Irene Reinares Martínez, Pierre Etienne Brilouet

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Biogenic fluxes from soil at a local and regional scale are crucial to study air pollution and climate. Here we present field measurements of soil fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) observed over four different land cover types, i.e. bare soil, grassland, maize field, and forest, at an inland rural site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016. At the regional scale, urbanization and a massive growth in population in West Africa have been causing a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported inland and northward from the megacities located on the coast, where the reaction with biogenic emissions may lead to enhanced ozone production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosol formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation, and crops. We observe NO fluxes up to 48.05 ngNm 2 s 1. NO fluxes averaged over all land cover types are 4:79 5:59 ngNm 2 s 1, and maximum soil emissions of NO are recorded over bare soil. NH3 is dominated by deposition for all land cover types. NH3 fluxes range between 6:59 and 4.96 ngNm 2 s 1. NH3 fluxes averaged over all land cover types are 0:911:27 ngNm 2 s 1, and maximum NH3 deposition is measured over bare soil. The observations show high spatial variability even for the same soil type, same day, and same meteorological conditions. We compare point daytime average measurements of NO emissions recorded during the field campaign with those simulated by GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Model) for the same site and find good agreement. In an attempt to quantify NO emissions at the regional and national scale, we also provide a tentative estimate of total NO emissions for the entire country of Benin for the month of July using two distinct methods: upscaling point measurements and using the GEOS-Chem model. The two methods give similar results: 1:170:6 and 1.44 GgN month 1, respectively. Total NH3 deposition estimated by upscaling point measurements for the month of July is 0.21 GgN month1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2299-2325
Number of pages27
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2019

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