Measuring uncertainty in games: design and preliminary validation.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Uncertainty is an important element of game play, which is widely believed to act as a precondition for player experience (PX). To investigate the concept and examine its relation to other PX concepts, we should be able to measure it. We present the design and preliminary results of the validation of the Player Uncertainty in Games (PUG) questionnaire. Based on various sources from games user research and work done with regards to searching digital archives, we designed a questionnaire that measures the experience of uncertainty in games. The scale was refined down to 66 items via interviews with players and expert reviews, which was then validated and further refined based on data gathered from gamers in an online survey. The Principal Component Analysis showed high level of internal consistency for the scale and each of its four factors: Disorientation, Exploration, Prospect, and Randomness. This work demonstrates the initial findings towards a validated tool for measuring uncertainty of players in digital games.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI 2017 Extended Abstracts - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Subtitle of host publicationExplore, Innovate, Inspire
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781450346566
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2017

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings
VolumePart F127655

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2017 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM).


  • Digital games
  • Player experience
  • Questionnaire
  • Scale
  • Uncertainty

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