Medical Device Innovation at the Base of the Pyramid: General Electrics’ India Strategy to Make Healthcare Affordable

Anand Kumar Jaiswal, Federica Angeli*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter shows the prominent case of General Electric (GE) and its decision to enter the Indian medical device market. It highlights the innovations required within the organization - developing new ways of operating in order to develop an innovative and affordable medical device. The chapter discusses GE approach as an exemplar of effective base of the pyramid strategy from a theoretical perspective. It considers GE’s strategy to make healthcare affordable in India, by illustrating the case of MAC 400 - a breakthrough, innovative, portable electrocardiogram machine designed for rural areas. GE’s innovation strategies in the Indian healthcare sector - as exemplified in improving diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases - provide a vivid illustration of base-of-pyramid practices and their evolution over time. The Indian cardiovascular device market is at the nascent stage with suboptimal penetration. GE in India has been following a traditional organizational structure and profit and loss model like most multinational corporations.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOrganizing for Sustainable Development
Subtitle of host publicationAddressing the Grand Challenges
PublisherTaylor and Francis Ltd.
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9780429512889
ISBN (Print)9780367197681
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Federica Angeli, Ashley Metz and Jörg Raab.

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