By the same authors

From the same journal

Models of transformative learning for social justice: Comparative case studies of non-formal development education in Britain and Spain

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Published copy (DOI)



Publication details

DateE-pub ahead of print - 1 Nov 2013
DatePublished (current) - Jan 2015
Issue number1
Number of pages22
Pages (from-to)141-162
Early online date1/11/13
Original languageEnglish


This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across fourteen organisations in Britain and Spain. Case studies were then identified, purposefully selecting interesting non-formal activities. This paper presents four activities and analyses their potential for transformative learning, drawing together ideas from the literature and the cross-case analysis of the perspectives of development education practitioners. By using the framework of transformative learning pedagogies, this research can inform non-formal education with aims regarding social justice in a range of contexts. It is argued that while there are scare opportunities for sustained non-formal development education, these cases contribute to knowledge by providing examples of how participative methodologies can generate critical thinking and thus offer learning opportunities that are transformational.

    Research areas

  • Development education, Non-formal education, Transformative learning, Critical thinking, Participative methodologies

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