Muslim communities learning about second-hand smoke: a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis

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In the United Kingdom, men of Bangladeshi and Pakistani origin have higher smoking rates than the general population. This makes non-smokers in their households more vulnerable to second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure than the general population.


The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of implementing and pilot testing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a ‘Smoke-free Homes’ (SFH) intervention in Islamic religious settings to encourage families of Bangladeshi and Pakistani origin to apply smoking restrictions in their homes.


We allocated Islamic religious settings (clusters) to either receive SFH—an educational intervention—or to a control arm. Within each cluster, we recruited households with at least one smoker and one non-smoker. SHS exposure among non-smokers was measured using salivary cotinine.


Seven (50%) clusters were randomised to each trial arm. A total of 468 households were assessed for eligibility and 62% (n=289) were eligible, of which 74% (n=213) agreed to participate in the trial. Six of the seven intervention clusters delivered the intervention, and all clusters were retained throughout the trial. In all, 81% (n=172) of households provided data at follow-up. No evidence of a difference in log cotinine level was observed (adjusted mean difference −0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.28–1.23, P=0.97) between the two trial arms. The direct mean cost of delivering the intervention was £18.18 per household (range £3.55–42.20).


It was possible to recruit, randomise and retain Islamic religious settings and participant households. However, some of the original assumptions, in particular our ability to collect primary outcome data, need to be revisited before a definitive trial.
Original languageEnglish
Article number15052
JournalPrimary Care Respiratory Medicine
Early online date27 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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