Muslim Communities Learning About Second-hand Smoke in Bangladesh (MCLASSII): a combined evidence and theory-based plus partnership intervention development approach.

Ian Kellar, Zunayed Azdi, Cath Jackson, Rumana Huque, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Kamran Siddiqi

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Introduction: Deaths from second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure are increasing but there is not sufficient evidence to recommend a particular SHS intervention or intervention development approach. Despite the available guidance on intervention reporting, and on the role and nature of pilot and feasibility studies, partial reporting of SHS interventions is common. The decision-making while developing such interventions is often under-reported. This paper describes the processes and decisions employed during transitioning from the aim of adapting an existing mosque-based intervention focused on public health messages, to the development of the content of novel community-based Smoke-Free Home (SFH) intervention. The intervention aims to promote smoke-free homes to reduce non-smokers’ exposure to SHS in the home via faith-based messages.

Methods: The development of the SFH intervention had four sequential phases: in-depth interviews with adults in households in Dhaka; identification of an intervention programme theory and content with Islamic scholars from the Bangladesh Islamic Foundation (BIF); user testing of candidate intervention content with adults, and iterative intervention development workshops with Imams and khatibs who trained at the BIF.

Results: It was judged inappropriate to take an intervention adaptation approach. Following the identification of an intervention programme theory and collaborating with stakeholders in an iterative and collaborative process to identify barriers, six potentially modifiable constructs were identified. These were targeted with a series of behaviour change techniques operationalised as Quranic verses with associated health messages to be used as the basis for Khutbahs. Following iterative user testing, acceptable intervention content was generated.

Conclusion: The potential of this community-based intervention to reduce SHS exposure at home and improve lung health among non-smokers in Bangladesh is the result of an iterative and collaborative process. It is the result of the integration of behaviour change evidence and theory, and community stakeholder contributions to the production of the intervention content. This novel combination of intervention development frameworks demonstrates a flexible approach that could provide insights for intervention development in related contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number136
Number of pages16
JournalPilot and Feasibility Studies
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2022

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