Network and synaptic mechanisms underlying high frequency oscillations in the rat and cat olfactory bulb under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia

Władysław Średniawa, Jacek Wróbel, Ewa Kublik, Daniel Krzysztof Wójcik, Miles Adrian Whittington, Mark Jeremy Hunt

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Wake-related ketamine-dependent high frequency oscillations (HFO) can be recorded in local field potentials (LFP) from cortical and subcortical regions in rodents. The mechanisms underlying their generation and occurrence in higher mammals are unclear. Unfortunately, anesthetic doses of pure ketamine attenuate HFO, which has precluded their investigation under anesthesia. Here, we show ketamine-xylazine (KX) anesthesia is associated with a prominent 80–130 Hz rhythm in the olfactory bulb (OB) of rats, whereas 30–65 Hz gamma power is diminished. Simultaneous LFP and thermocouple recordings revealed the 80–130 Hz rhythm was dependent on nasal respiration. This rhythm persisted despite surgical excision of the piriform cortex. Silicon probes spanning the dorsoventral aspect of the OB revealed this rhythm was strongest in ventral areas and associated with microcurrent sources about the mitral layer. Pharmacological microinfusion studies revealed dependency on excitatory-inhibitory synaptic activity, but not gap junctions. Finally, a similar rhythm occurred in the OB of KX-anesthetized cats, which shared key features with our rodent studies. We conclude that the activity we report here is driven by nasal airflow, local excitatory-inhibitory interactions, and conserved in higher mammals. Additionally, KX anesthesia is a convenient model to investigate further the mechanisms underlying wake-related ketamine-dependent HFO.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6390
Number of pages14
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2021

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