No benefit of auditory closed-loop stimulation on memory for semantically-incongruent associations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Auditory closed-loop stimulation has gained traction in recent years as a means of enhancing slow oscillatory activity and, consequently, sleep-associated memory consolidation. Previous studies on this topic have primarily focused on the consolidation of semantically-congruent associations. In this study, we investigated the effect of auditory closed-loop stimulation on the overnight retention of semantically-incongruent associations. Twelve healthy males (age: M=20.06, SD=2.02 years) participated in two experimental conditions (simulation and sham). In the stimulation condition, clicks were delivered in phase with slow oscillation up-states, whereas in the sham condition no auditory stimuli were applied. Corroborating earlier work, stimulation (vs. sham) enhanced the slow oscillation rhythm, phase-coupled spindle activity and slow oscillation power. However, there was no benefit of stimulation on overnight memory retention. These findings suggest that closed-loop stimulation does not benefit semantically-incongruent associations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107482
JournalNeurobiology of learning and memory
Early online date25 Jun 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.

Cite this