Novel SOLPS-ITER simulations of X-point target and snowflake divertors

C. Cowley*, A. Q. Kuang, D. Moulton, J. D. Lore, J. Canik, M. Umansky, M. Wigram, S. Ballinger, B. Lipschultz, X. Bonnin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The design and understanding of alternative divertor configurations may be crucial for achieving acceptable steady-state heat and particle material loads for magnetic confinement fusion reactors. Multiple X-point alternative divertor geometries such as snowflakes and X-point targets have great potential in reducing power loads, but have not yet been simulated widely in codes with kinetic neutrals. This paper discusses recent changes made to the SOLPS-ITER code to allow for the simulation of X-point target and low-field side snowflake divertor geometries. Snowflake simulations using this method are presented, in addition to the first SOLPS-ITER simulation of the X-point target. Analysis of these results show reasonable consistency with the simple modelling and theoretical predictions, supporting the validity of the methodology implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035011
Number of pages9
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium, funded by the European Union via the Euratom Research and Training Programme (Grant Agreement No. 101052200 - EUROfusion). Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Commission. Neither the European Union nor the European Commission can be held responsible for them. The views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the ITER Organization.

Funding Information:
This work has been part-funded by the RCUK Energy Programme [Grant No. EP/T012250/1], and in part performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • advanced divertor
  • divertor
  • simulation
  • snowflake
  • X-point target

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