Numerical analysis of lithium-ion battery thermal management system using phase change material assisted by liquid cooling method

R. Wang, Z. Liang, M. Souri, M. N. Esfahani, M. Jabbari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In this paper, a novel design for hybrid battery thermal management systems (BTMS) is proposed and evaluated from the economic and engineering perspectives. Numerical models are compared with phase change materials (PCM) BTMS. Further, the suggested hybrid cooling system's thermal performance at the pack level is investigated considering cell-to-cell variation. A three-dimensional thermal model is used for the numerical simulation of the battery cooling system. The probability distributions is utilised for the cell-to-cell variations of a 168-cell battery pack. Results shows that for a 53 Ah lithium-ion battery (LIB) under a 5C discharge rate, a hybrid cooling system with two-sided cold plates can reduce the maximum temperature from ∼64 C to 46.3 C with acceptable system weight and power consumption, which is used for further pack level simulation. It is concluded that the two-sided cold plate hybrid design system can manage the maximum average temperature as well as temperature difference of cells in the desirable range at extreme cases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122095
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue numberPart B
Early online date22 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021


  • Cold plate
  • Hybrid cooling
  • Liquid cooling
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Phase change material
  • Thermal management

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