On the Pitfalls of Resource Augmentation Factors and Utilization Bounds in Real-Time Scheduling

J.J. Chen, G. von der Bruggen, W-H Huang, Robert Ian Davis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In this paper, we take a careful look at speedup factors, utilization bounds, and capacity augmentation bounds. These three metrics have been widely adopted in real-time scheduling research as the de facto standard theoretical tools for assessing scheduling algorithms and schedulability tests. Despite that, it is not always clear how researchers and designers should interpret or use these metrics. In studying this area, we found a number of surprising results, and related to them, ways in which the metrics may be misinterpreted or misunderstood. In this paper, we provide a perspective on the use of these metrics, guiding researchers on their meaning and interpretation, and helping to avoid pitfalls in their use. Finally, we propose and demonstrate the use of parametric augmentation functions as a means of providing nuanced information that may be more relevant in practical settings.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017)
EditorsMarko Bertogna
PublisherSchloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-95977-037-8
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017
Event29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017) -
Duration: 27 Jun 201730 Jun 2017

Publication series

NameLIPIcs – Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
PublisherSchloss Dagstuhl
ISSN (Electronic)1868-8969


Conference29th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2017)

Bibliographical note

© 2017, Jian-Jia Chen, Georg von der Brüggen, Wen-Hung Huang, and Robert I. Davis.


  • Speedup factors
  • fixed priority scheduling
  • real time

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