Activities per year
Little research has been published as to the ways in which the commercial aspects of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association’s (FIFA) World Cups are organized. Extant literature has instead tended to focus upon infrastructure issues, economic geography, and cultural aspects. Drawing upon ‘swarm theory’ and historian Wray Vamplew’s typologies of entrepreneurial activity in sport, we compare and contrast the commercial aspects of two World Cups; first, the 1966 tournament held in England, the first time that a serious attempt had been made to produce and licence a mascot character (‘World Cup Willie’) to exploit merchandizing opportunities. This approach became an important part of World Cups thereafter; Second, the 1994 tournament in the USA, the most commercially successful World Cup ever, realizing record profits and catalyzing the re-launch of elite professional soccer in the USA. These cases enrich understanding of the networks and entrepreneurial activity of the World Cup, one of the most significant sporting and cultural mega-event projects in the world.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||The International Journal of the History of Sport|
|Early online date||3 Feb 2019|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 3 Feb 2019|
Bibliographical note© 2019 Informa UK Limited. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.
- swarm theory
- World Cup
The Business of The World Cup
Alex Giles Gillett (Presenter), Kevin Daniel Tennent (Presenter) & G W Dyke (Chair)12 Jun 2018
Activity: Other › Public engagement and outreach (social community and cultural engagement)
England 1966, USA 1994 and the World Cup: Thoughts on populism, the popular and public indifference
Alex Giles Gillett (Chair) & Kevin Daniel Tennent (Chair)1 Jun 2018
Activity: Talk or presentation › Workshop