Optimized 3D Watermarking for Minimal Surface Distortion

A.G. Bors, Ming Luo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper proposes a new approach to 3D watermarking by ensuring the optimal preservation of mesh surfaces. A new 3D surface preservation function metric is defined consisting of the distance of a vertex displaced by watermarking to the original surface, to the watermarked object surface as well as the actual vertex displacement. The proposed method is statistical, blind, and robust. Minimal surface distortion according to the proposed function metric is enforced during the statistical watermark embedding stage using Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method. A study of the watermark code crypto-security is provided for the proposed methodology. According to the experimental results, the proposed methodology has high robustness against the common mesh attacks while preserving the original object surface during watermarking.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1822-1835
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • mesh surfaces
  • Measurement
  • surface error minimization
  • optimized 3D watermarking
  • Robustness
  • watermarked object surface
  • 3D digital watermarking
  • Surface treatment
  • Watermarking
  • statistical watermark embedding stage
  • vertex displacement
  • Histograms
  • original object surface
  • watermarking
  • watermark code cryptosecurity
  • mesh attacks
  • statistical analysis
  • Levenberg–Marquardt optimization
  • Vectors
  • optimal preservation
  • cryptography
  • Bismuth
  • Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method
  • 3D surface preservation function metric
  • minimal surface distortion
  • optimisation

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