Parallel factor ChIP provides essential internal control for quantitative differential ChIP-seq.

MJ Guertin, AE Cullen, F Markowetz, AN Holding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A key challenge in quantitative ChIP combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the normalization of data in the presence of genome-wide changes in occupancy. Analysis-based normalization methods were developed for transcriptomic data and these are dependent on the underlying assumption that total transcription does not change between conditions. For genome-wide changes in transcription factor (TF) binding, these assumptions do not hold true. The challenges in normalization are confounded by experimental variability during sample preparation, processing and recovery. We present a novel normalization strategy utilizing an internal standard of unchanged peaks for reference. Our method can be readily applied to monitor genome-wide changes by ChIP-seq that are otherwise lost or misrepresented through analytical normalization. We compare our approach to normalization by total read depth and two alternative methods that utilize external experimental controls to study TF binding. We successfully resolve the key challenges in quantitative ChIP-seq analysis and demonstrate its application by monitoring the loss of Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER) binding upon fulvestrant treatment, ER binding in response to estrodiol, ER mediated change in H4K12 acetylation and profiling ER binding in patient-derived xenographs. This is supported by an adaptable pipeline to normalize and quantify differential TF binding genome-wide and generate metrics for differential binding at individual sites.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere75
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Volume46
Issue number12
Early online date17 Apr 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Cite this