By the same authors

From the same journal

From the same journal

Passives are not hard to interpret but hard to remember: evidence from online and offline studies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Full text download(s)

Published copy (DOI)


  • Caterina Paolazzi
  • Nino Grillo
  • Artemis Alexiadou
  • Andrea Santi


Publication details

JournalLanguage Cognition and Neuroscience
DateAccepted/In press - 20 Mar 2019
DateE-pub ahead of print - 5 Apr 2019
DatePublished (current) - 5 Apr 2019
Number of pages25
Pages (from-to)1-25
Early online date5/04/19
Original languageEnglish


Passive sentences are considered more difficult to comprehend than active ones. Previous online-only studies cast doubt on this generalization. The current paper directly compares online and offline processing of passivization and manipulates verb type: state vs event. Stative passives are temporarily ambiguous (adjectival vs verbal), eventive passives are not (always verbal). Across 4 experiments (self-paced reading with comprehension questions), passives were consistently read faster than actives. This contradicts the claim that passives are difficult to parse and/or interpret, as argued by main perspectives of passive processing (heuristic or syntactic). The reading time facilitation is compatible with broader expectation/surprisal theories. When comprehension targeted theta-roles assignment, passives were more errorful, regardless of verb type. Verbal WM measures did not correlate with the difference in accuracy, excluding it as an explanation. The accuracy effect is argued to reflect a post-interpretive difficulty associated with generating/maintaining a propositional representation of passives required by specific tasks.

Bibliographical note

© 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.

    Research areas

  • language comprehension, passivisation, HEURISTICS, surprisal, filler-gap dependency

Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations