BACKGROUND: Phospholipases D1 and D2 (PLD1/2) are implicated in tumorigenesis through their generation of the signalling lipid phosphatidic acid and its downstream effects. Inhibition of PLD1 blocks prostate cell growth and colony formation. Here a role for PLD2 in prostate cancer (PCa), the major cancer of men in the western world, is examined.
METHODS: PLD2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The effects of PLD2 inhibition on PCa cell viability and cell motility were measured using MTS, colony forming and wound-healing assays.
RESULTS: PLD2 protein is expressed about equally in luminal and basal prostate epithelial cells. In cells from different Gleason-scored PCa tissue PLD2 protein expression is generally higher than in non-tumorigenic cells and increases in PCa tissue scored Gleason 6-8. PLD2 protein is detected in the cytosol and nucleus and had a punctate appearance. In BPH tissue stromal cells as well as basal and luminal cells express PLD2. PLD2 protein co-expresses with chromogranin A in castrate-resistant PCa tissue. PLD2 inhibition reduces PCa cell viability, colony forming ability and directional cell movement.
CONCLUSIONS: PLD2 expression correlates with increasing Gleason score to GS8. PLD2 inhibition has the potential to reduce PCa progression.