By the same authors

Pinus pinaster early hormonal defence responses to pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) infection

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Author(s)

  • Ana M. Rodrigues
  • Swen Langer
  • Isabel Carrasquinho
  • Ed Bergström
  • Tony Larson
  • Jane Thomas-Oates
  • Carla António

Department/unit(s)

Publication details

JournalMetabolites
DateAccepted/In press - 6 Apr 2021
DatePublished (current) - 8 Apr 2021
Issue number4
Volume11
Number of pages19
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

The pinewood nematode (PWN) is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a pathology that affects conifer forests, mainly Pinus spp. PWN infection can induce the expression of phytohormone-related genes; however, changes at the early phytohormone level have not yet been explored. Phyto-hormones are low-abundance metabolites, and thus, difficult to quantify. Moreover, most method-ologies focus mainly on Arabidopsis or crop species. This work aimed to validate a fast (run time 6.6 min) liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) analytical method to quantify 14 phytohormones in Pinus pinaster stem tissues. This method was further applied to evaluate, for the first time, early phytohormone changes in susceptible and resistant phenotypes of P. pinaster 24, 48 and 72 h after inoculation (HAI) with PWN. A significant increase in salicylic acid (SA, 48 and 72 HAI) and jasmonic acid methyl ester (JA-ME, 72 HAI) was observed in susceptible phenotypes. Results indicate that the higher susceptibility of P. pinaster to PWN infection might result from an inefficient trigger of hypersensitive responses, with the involvement of JA and SA pathways. This work provides an important update in forest research, and adds to the current knowledge of Pinus spp. defence responses to PWN infection.

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: The authors gratefully acknowledge Lurdes Inácio (Nematology Laboratory, INIAV, Portugal) for the virulent B. xylophilus inoculum, Hugo Monteiro (ITQB NOVA, Portugal) for greenhouse support, and David Harvey (CNAP, University of York, UK) for LC-MS technical support. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Ana Milhinhos and Inês Chaves (ForGen Lab, FCUL, Portugal) during the inoculation procedure.

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by national funds from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) through the FCT Investigator Programme (C.A. contract IF/00376/2012/CP0165/CT0003), and the R&D unit GREEN-IT ‘Bioresources for sustainability’ (UID/Multi/04551/2013). A.M.R. acknowledges FCT and the ITQB NOVA International PhD Programme ‘Plants for Life’ (PD/00035/2013) for the PhD fellowship (PD/BD/114417/2016), and FEBS for the short-term fellowship award. I.C. acknowledges the FCT-funded project number 02/SAICT/2017. The York Centre of Excellence in Mass Spectrometry was created thanks to a major capital investment through Science City York, supported by Yorkshire Forward with funds from the Northern Way Initiative, and subsequent support from EPSRC (EP/K039660/1; EP/M028127/1).

Funding Information:
This work was supported by national funds from Funda??o para a Ci?ncia e Tecnologia (FCT) through the FCT Investigator Programme (C.A. contract IF/00376/2012/CP0165/CT0003), and the R&D unit GREEN-IT ?Bioresources for sustainability? (UID/Multi/04551/2013). A.M.R. acknowledges FCT and the ITQB NOVA International PhD Programme ?Plants for Life? (PD/00035/2013) for the PhD fellowship (PD/BD/114417/2016), and FEBS for the short-term fellowship award. I.C. acknowledges the FCT-funded project number 02/SAICT/2017. The York Centre of Excellence in Mass Spectrometry was created thanks to a major capital investment through Science City York, supported by Yorkshire Forward with funds from the Northern Way Initiative, and subsequent support from EPSRC (EP/K039660/1; EP/M028127/1). The authors gratefully acknowledge Lurdes In?cio (Nematology Laboratory, INIAV, Portugal) for the virulent B. xylophilus inoculum, Hugo Monteiro (ITQB NOVA, Portugal) for greenhouse support, and David Harvey (CNAP, University of York, UK) for LC-MS technical support. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from Ana Milhinhos and In?s Chaves (ForGen Lab, FCUL, Portugal) during the inoculation procedure.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Analytical method validation, Biotic stress, Forest tree metabolomics, Maritime pine, Mass spectrometry (MS), Phytohormones, Pine wilt disease, Plant metabolomics, Quantitative MS, Triple quadrupole

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