Predicting the Colouration between Binaural Signals

Thomas McKenzie, Calum Armstrong, Lauren Ward, Damian T. Murphy, Gavin Kearney*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although the difference between the fast Fourier transforms of two audio signals is often used as a basic measure of predicting perceived colouration, these signal measures do not provide information on how relevant the results are from a perceptual point of view. This paper presents a perceptually motivated loudness calculation for predicting the colouration between binaural signals which incorporates equal loudness frequency contouring, relative subjective loudness weighting, cochlea frequency modelling, and an iterative normalisation of input signals. The validation compares the presented model to three other colouration calculations in two ways: using test signals designed to evaluate specific elements of the model, and against the results of a listening test on degraded binaural audio signals. Results demonstrate the presented model is appropriate for predicting the colouration between binaural signals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2441
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Early online date26 Feb 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by a Google Faculty Research Award.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Binaural audio
  • Colouration
  • Immersive audio
  • Signal difference
  • Spectral difference

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