Production processes of pop music arrangers in Bamako, Mali

Amandine Chantal Brigitte Pras, Kierian Turner, Toby Bol, Emmanuelle Olivier

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Bamako, economic capital of Mali in West Africa, saw the recent multiplication of digital studios based on Cubase 5, FL Studio, cracked plugins, a MIDI keyboard, and a small cabin with a cheap condenser microphone and a pop-filter. From videos and screen captures of recording sessions in three of these studios, we analyzed the creative process of four DAW practitioners from the beginning of the beat production to the mastering of the track. We also examined their interaction with the singers and rappers. Our analyses showed that young Malian DAW practitioners constantly revisit their MIDI arrangement and vocal recordings with advanced editing techniques. Locally successful, they have quickly developed a notoriety that enables them to be directive with their clients.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAES Convention 147
PublisherAudio Engineering Society
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2019

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