BACKGROUND: Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies are prone to detection errors. Multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) may improve the diagnostic pathway.
METHODS: PROMIS is a prospective validating paired-cohort study that meets criteria for level 1 evidence in diagnostic test evaluation. PROMIS will investigate whether multi-parametric (MP)-MRI can discriminate between men with and without clinically-significant prostate cancer who are at risk prior to first biopsy. Up to 714 men will have MP-MRI (index), 10-12 core TRUS-biopsy (standard) and 5mm transperineal template mapping (TPM) biopsies (reference). The conduct and reporting of each test will be blinded to the others.
RESULTS: PROMIS will measure and compare sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of both MP-MRI and TRUS-biopsy against TPM biopsies. The MP-MRI results will be used to determine the proportion of men who could safely avoid biopsy without compromising detection of clinically-significant cancers. For the primary outcome, significant cancer on TPM is defined as Gleason grade>/=4+3 and/or maximum cancer core length of ≥6mm. PROMIS will also assess inter-observer variability among radiologists among other secondary outcomes. Cost-effectiveness of MP-MRI prior to biopsy will also be evaluated.
CONCLUSIONS: PROMIS will determine whether MP-MRI of the prostate prior to first biopsy improves the detection accuracy of clinically-significant cancer.