Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

**Quantum strong energy inequalities.** / Fewster, Christopher John; Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

Fewster, CJ & Kontou, E-A 2019, 'Quantum strong energy inequalities', *Physical Review D*, vol. 99, 045001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.99.045001

Fewster, C. J., & Kontou, E-A. (2019). Quantum strong energy inequalities. *Physical Review D*, *99*, [045001]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.99.045001

Fewster CJ, Kontou E-A. Quantum strong energy inequalities. Physical Review D. 2019 Feb 4;99. 045001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.99.045001

@article{da96ab04fa894bf18ce9ab20160a77c7,

title = "Quantum strong energy inequalities",

abstract = "Quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) express restrictions on the extent to which weighted averages of the renormalized energy density can take negative expectation values within a quantum field theory. Here we derive, for the first time, QEIs for the effective energy density (EED) for the quantized non-minimally coupled massive scalar field. The EED is the quantity required to be non-negative in the strong energy condition (SEC), which is used as a hypothesis of the Hawking singularity theorem. Thus establishing such quantum strong energy inequalities (QSEIs) is a first step towards a singularity theorem for matter described by quantum field theory. More specifically, we derive difference QSEIs, in which the local average of the EED is normal-ordered relative to a reference state, and averaging occurs over both timelike geodesics and spacetime volumes. The resulting QSEIs turn out to depend on the state of interest. We analyse the state-dependence of these bounds in Minkowski spacetime for thermal (KMS) states, and show that the lower bounds grow more slowly in magnitude than the EED itself as the temperature increases. The lower bounds are therefore of lower energetic order than the EED, and qualify as nontrivial state-dependent QEIs.",

author = "Fewster, {Christopher John} and Eleni-Alexandra Kontou",

note = "{\textcopyright} 2019 American Physical Society. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher{\textquoteright}s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details. ",

year = "2019",

month = feb,

day = "4",

doi = "10.1103/PhysRevD.99.045001",

language = "English",

volume = "99",

journal = "Physical Review D",

issn = "2470-0010",

publisher = "American Institute of Physics",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantum strong energy inequalities

AU - Fewster, Christopher John

AU - Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra

N1 - © 2019 American Physical Society. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.

PY - 2019/2/4

Y1 - 2019/2/4

N2 - Quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) express restrictions on the extent to which weighted averages of the renormalized energy density can take negative expectation values within a quantum field theory. Here we derive, for the first time, QEIs for the effective energy density (EED) for the quantized non-minimally coupled massive scalar field. The EED is the quantity required to be non-negative in the strong energy condition (SEC), which is used as a hypothesis of the Hawking singularity theorem. Thus establishing such quantum strong energy inequalities (QSEIs) is a first step towards a singularity theorem for matter described by quantum field theory. More specifically, we derive difference QSEIs, in which the local average of the EED is normal-ordered relative to a reference state, and averaging occurs over both timelike geodesics and spacetime volumes. The resulting QSEIs turn out to depend on the state of interest. We analyse the state-dependence of these bounds in Minkowski spacetime for thermal (KMS) states, and show that the lower bounds grow more slowly in magnitude than the EED itself as the temperature increases. The lower bounds are therefore of lower energetic order than the EED, and qualify as nontrivial state-dependent QEIs.

AB - Quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) express restrictions on the extent to which weighted averages of the renormalized energy density can take negative expectation values within a quantum field theory. Here we derive, for the first time, QEIs for the effective energy density (EED) for the quantized non-minimally coupled massive scalar field. The EED is the quantity required to be non-negative in the strong energy condition (SEC), which is used as a hypothesis of the Hawking singularity theorem. Thus establishing such quantum strong energy inequalities (QSEIs) is a first step towards a singularity theorem for matter described by quantum field theory. More specifically, we derive difference QSEIs, in which the local average of the EED is normal-ordered relative to a reference state, and averaging occurs over both timelike geodesics and spacetime volumes. The resulting QSEIs turn out to depend on the state of interest. We analyse the state-dependence of these bounds in Minkowski spacetime for thermal (KMS) states, and show that the lower bounds grow more slowly in magnitude than the EED itself as the temperature increases. The lower bounds are therefore of lower energetic order than the EED, and qualify as nontrivial state-dependent QEIs.

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.99.045001

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.99.045001

M3 - Article

VL - 99

JO - Physical Review D

JF - Physical Review D

SN - 2470-0010

M1 - 045001

ER -