Renewable Self-Blowing Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Foams from Lysine and Sorbitol

James H. Clark, Thomas J. Farmer, Ian D.V. Ingram, Yann Lie, Michael North*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Copolymerisation of a sorbitol-derived bis-carbonate with simple diamines, including cadaverine that was sustainably produced from lysine, under solvent-free conditions was shown to produce rigid foams. Thermogravimetric analysis carried out in tandem with infrared spectroscopy of the released gases confirmed that the foaming agent was carbon dioxide produced during the polymerisation process itself. Such a bio-based foam, being made under mild conditions from stable, benign precursors, with no toxic isocyanates, has great potential application for both thermal insulation and packaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4265-4271
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Organic Chemistry
Issue number31
Early online date30 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2018

Bibliographical note

© Wiley, 2018. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details


  • Copolymerization
  • Cyclic carbonates
  • Foams
  • Polymers
  • Renewable materials
  • Sorbitol

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