Retinoic acid and androgen receptors combine to achieve tissue specific control of human prostatic transglutaminase expression: a novel regulatory network with broader significance

Guillermo C Rivera-Gonzalez, Alastair P Droop, Helen J Rippon, Katrin Tiemann, Davide Pellacani, Lindsay J Georgopoulos, Norman J Maitland

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In the human prostate, expression of prostate-specific genes is known to be directly regulated by the androgen-induced stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR). However, less is known about the expression control of the prostate-restricted TGM4 (hTGP) gene. In the present study we demonstrate that the regulation of the hTGP gene depends mainly on retinoic acid (RA). We provide evidence that the retinoic acid receptor gamma (RAR-G) plays a major role in the regulation of the hTGP gene and that presence of the AR, but not its transcriptional transactivation activity, is critical for hTGP transcription. RA and androgen responsive elements (RARE and ARE) were mapped to the hTGP promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which also indicated that the active ARE and RARE sites were adjacent, suggesting that the antagonistic effect of androgen and RA is related to the relative position of binding sites. Publicly available AR and RAR ChIP-seq data was used to find gene potentially regulated by AR and RAR. Four of these genes (CDCA7L, CDK6, BTG1 and SAMD3) were tested for RAR and AR binding and two of them (CDCA7L and CDK6) proved to be antagonistically regulated by androgens and RA confirming that this regulation is not particular of hTGP.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4825-4840
Number of pages16
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

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