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Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy

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Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy. / Luo, Jiewen; Lin, Litao; Liu, Cun; Jia, Chao; Chen, Tianyue; Yang, Yang; Shen, Minghao; Shang, Hua; Zhou, Shaojie; Huang, Meiying; Wang, Yujun; Zhou, Dongmei; Fan, Jiajun; Clark, James H.; Zhang, Shicheng; Zhu, Xiangdong.

In: Journal of hazardous materials, Vol. 399, 123055, 15.11.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Luo, J, Lin, L, Liu, C, Jia, C, Chen, T, Yang, Y, Shen, M, Shang, H, Zhou, S, Huang, M, Wang, Y, Zhou, D, Fan, J, Clark, JH, Zhang, S & Zhu, X 2020, 'Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy', Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 399, 123055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123055

APA

Luo, J., Lin, L., Liu, C., Jia, C., Chen, T., Yang, Y., Shen, M., Shang, H., Zhou, S., Huang, M., Wang, Y., Zhou, D., Fan, J., Clark, J. H., Zhang, S., & Zhu, X. (2020). Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy. Journal of hazardous materials, 399, [123055]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123055

Vancouver

Luo J, Lin L, Liu C, Jia C, Chen T, Yang Y et al. Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy. Journal of hazardous materials. 2020 Nov 15;399. 123055. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123055

Author

Luo, Jiewen ; Lin, Litao ; Liu, Cun ; Jia, Chao ; Chen, Tianyue ; Yang, Yang ; Shen, Minghao ; Shang, Hua ; Zhou, Shaojie ; Huang, Meiying ; Wang, Yujun ; Zhou, Dongmei ; Fan, Jiajun ; Clark, James H. ; Zhang, Shicheng ; Zhu, Xiangdong. / Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy. In: Journal of hazardous materials. 2020 ; Vol. 399.

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@article{b9041343276044dcae894e9ab597f9b1,
title = "Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy",
abstract = "With the aim to develop optimized biochar with minimal contaminants, it is important significance to broaden the understanding of biochar. Here, we disclose for the first time, a highly toxic substance (metal cyanide, MCN, such as KCN or NaCN) in biochar. The cyanide ion (CN−) content in biochar can be up to 85,870 mg/kg, which is determined by the inherent metal content and type in the biomass with K and Na increasing and Ca, Mg and Fe decreasing its formation. Density functional theory (DFT) analysis shows that unstable alkali oxygen-containing metal salts such as K2CO3 can induce an N rearrangement reaction to produce for example, KOCN. The strong reducing character of the carbon matrix further converts KOCN to KCN, thus resulting biochar with high risk. However, the stable Mg, Ca and Fe salts in biomass cannot induce an N rearrangement reaction due to their high binding energies. We therefore propose that high valent metal chloride salts such as FeCl3 and MgCl2 could be used to inhibit the production of cyanide via metal interactive reaction. These findings open a new point of view on the potential risk of biochar and provide a mitigation solution for biochar's sustainable application.",
keywords = "Biochar, Metal cyanide, Theoretical calculation, Toxic substance",
author = "Jiewen Luo and Litao Lin and Cun Liu and Chao Jia and Tianyue Chen and Yang Yang and Minghao Shen and Hua Shang and Shaojie Zhou and Meiying Huang and Yujun Wang and Dongmei Zhou and Jiajun Fan and Clark, {James H.} and Shicheng Zhang and Xiangdong Zhu",
note = "{\textcopyright} 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher{\textquoteright}s self-archiving policy. ",
year = "2020",
month = nov,
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123055",
language = "English",
volume = "399",
journal = "Journal of hazardous materials",
issn = "0304-3894",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reveal a hidden highly toxic substance in biochar to support its effective elimination strategy

AU - Luo, Jiewen

AU - Lin, Litao

AU - Liu, Cun

AU - Jia, Chao

AU - Chen, Tianyue

AU - Yang, Yang

AU - Shen, Minghao

AU - Shang, Hua

AU - Zhou, Shaojie

AU - Huang, Meiying

AU - Wang, Yujun

AU - Zhou, Dongmei

AU - Fan, Jiajun

AU - Clark, James H.

AU - Zhang, Shicheng

AU - Zhu, Xiangdong

N1 - © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.

PY - 2020/11/15

Y1 - 2020/11/15

N2 - With the aim to develop optimized biochar with minimal contaminants, it is important significance to broaden the understanding of biochar. Here, we disclose for the first time, a highly toxic substance (metal cyanide, MCN, such as KCN or NaCN) in biochar. The cyanide ion (CN−) content in biochar can be up to 85,870 mg/kg, which is determined by the inherent metal content and type in the biomass with K and Na increasing and Ca, Mg and Fe decreasing its formation. Density functional theory (DFT) analysis shows that unstable alkali oxygen-containing metal salts such as K2CO3 can induce an N rearrangement reaction to produce for example, KOCN. The strong reducing character of the carbon matrix further converts KOCN to KCN, thus resulting biochar with high risk. However, the stable Mg, Ca and Fe salts in biomass cannot induce an N rearrangement reaction due to their high binding energies. We therefore propose that high valent metal chloride salts such as FeCl3 and MgCl2 could be used to inhibit the production of cyanide via metal interactive reaction. These findings open a new point of view on the potential risk of biochar and provide a mitigation solution for biochar's sustainable application.

AB - With the aim to develop optimized biochar with minimal contaminants, it is important significance to broaden the understanding of biochar. Here, we disclose for the first time, a highly toxic substance (metal cyanide, MCN, such as KCN or NaCN) in biochar. The cyanide ion (CN−) content in biochar can be up to 85,870 mg/kg, which is determined by the inherent metal content and type in the biomass with K and Na increasing and Ca, Mg and Fe decreasing its formation. Density functional theory (DFT) analysis shows that unstable alkali oxygen-containing metal salts such as K2CO3 can induce an N rearrangement reaction to produce for example, KOCN. The strong reducing character of the carbon matrix further converts KOCN to KCN, thus resulting biochar with high risk. However, the stable Mg, Ca and Fe salts in biomass cannot induce an N rearrangement reaction due to their high binding energies. We therefore propose that high valent metal chloride salts such as FeCl3 and MgCl2 could be used to inhibit the production of cyanide via metal interactive reaction. These findings open a new point of view on the potential risk of biochar and provide a mitigation solution for biochar's sustainable application.

KW - Biochar

KW - Metal cyanide

KW - Theoretical calculation

KW - Toxic substance

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85086388903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123055

DO - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123055

M3 - Article

C2 - 32526445

AN - SCOPUS:85086388903

VL - 399

JO - Journal of hazardous materials

JF - Journal of hazardous materials

SN - 0304-3894

M1 - 123055

ER -