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Shielding in and around Oxazole, Imidazole, and Thiazole: How Does the Second Heteroatom Affect Aromaticity and Bonding?

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Publication details

JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
DatePublished - 17 Jul 2015
Issue number14
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)7150-7157
Original languageEnglish


Isotropic magnetic shielding distributions in the regions of space surrounding oxazole, imidazole, and thiazole are used to investigate aromaticity and bonding in these five-membered heterocycles with two heteroatoms. This is achieved by constructing HF-GIAO and MP2-GIAO (Hartree-Fock and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with gauge-including atomic orbitals) isotropic shielding plots, within the 6-311++G(d,p) basis, using regular two-dimensional 0.05 Å grids in the molecular plane and in planes 0.5 and 1 Å above it. The extent of isotropic shielding delocalization in the contour plots in planes 1 Å above the molecular plane, which is a new sensitive two-dimensional aromaticity criterion, indicates that aromaticity decreases in the order thiazole > imidazole > oxazole; in combination with previous results on furan, pyrrole, and thiophene (J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 8037-9043), the aromaticity ordering in the six five-membered heterocycles becomes thiophene > thiazole > pyrrole > imidazole > furan > oxazole. The results suggest that the inclusion of a second heteroatom in a five-membered heterocycle has a detrimental effect on its aromaticity, which is very minor in oxazole, when compared to furan, and small but noticeable in imidazole and pyrrole and in thiazole and thiophene.

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