Shielding in and around Oxazole, Imidazole, and Thiazole: How Does the Second Heteroatom Affect Aromaticity and Bonding?

Kate E. Horner, Peter B. Karadakov*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Isotropic magnetic shielding distributions in the regions of space surrounding oxazole, imidazole, and thiazole are used to investigate aromaticity and bonding in these five-membered heterocycles with two heteroatoms. This is achieved by constructing HF-GIAO and MP2-GIAO (Hartree-Fock and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with gauge-including atomic orbitals) isotropic shielding plots, within the 6-311++G(d,p) basis, using regular two-dimensional 0.05 Å grids in the molecular plane and in planes 0.5 and 1 Å above it. The extent of isotropic shielding delocalization in the contour plots in planes 1 Å above the molecular plane, which is a new sensitive two-dimensional aromaticity criterion, indicates that aromaticity decreases in the order thiazole > imidazole > oxazole; in combination with previous results on furan, pyrrole, and thiophene (J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 8037-9043), the aromaticity ordering in the six five-membered heterocycles becomes thiophene > thiazole > pyrrole > imidazole > furan > oxazole. The results suggest that the inclusion of a second heteroatom in a five-membered heterocycle has a detrimental effect on its aromaticity, which is very minor in oxazole, when compared to furan, and small but noticeable in imidazole and pyrrole and in thiazole and thiophene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7150-7157
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jul 2015

Cite this