Shock compression experiments using the DiPOLE 100-X laser on the high energy density instrument at the European x-ray free electron laser: Quantitative structural analysis of liquid Sn

M. G. Gorman*, D. McGonegle, R. F. Smith, S. Singh, T. Jenkins, R. S. McWilliams, B. Albertazzi, S. J. Ali, L. Antonelli, M. R. Armstrong, C. Baehtz, O. B. Ball, S. Banerjee, A. B. Belonoshko, A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, C. A. Bolme, V. Bouffetier, R. Briggs, K. Buakor, T. ButcherS. Di Dio Cafiso, V. Cerantola, J. Chantel, A. Di Cicco, S. Clarke, A. L. Coleman, J. Collier, G. W. Collins, A. J. Comley, F. Coppari, T. E. Cowan, G. Cristoforetti, H. Cynn, A. Descamps, F. Dorchies, M. J. Duff, A. Dwivedi, C. Edwards, J. H. Eggert, D. Errandonea, G. Fiquet, E. Galtier, A. Laso Garcia, H. Ginestet, L. Gizzi, A. Gleason, S. Goede, J. M. Gonzalez, M. Harmand, N. J. Hartley, P. G. Heighway, C. Hernandez-Gomez, A. Higginbotham, H. Höppner, R. J. Husband, T. M. Hutchinson, H. Hwang, A. E. Lazicki, D. A. Keen, J. Kim, P. Koester, Z. Konopkova, D. Kraus, A. Krygier, L. Labate, Y. Lee, H. P. Liermann, P. Mason, M. Masruri, B. Massani, E. E. McBride, C. McGuire, J. D. McHardy, S. Merkel, G. Morard, B. Nagler, M. Nakatsutsumi, K. Nguyen-Cong, A. M. Norton, I. I. Oleynik, C. Otzen, N. Ozaki, S. Pandolfi, D. J. Peake, A. Pelka, K. A. Pereira, J. P. Phillips, C. Prescher, T. R. Preston, L. Randolph, D. Ranjan, A. Ravasio, R. Redmer, J. Rips, D. Santamaria-Perez, D. J. Savage, M. Schoelmerich, J. P. Schwinkendorf, J. Smith, A. Sollier, J. Spear, C. Spindloe, M. Stevenson, C. Strohm, T. A. Suer, M. Tang, M. Toncian, T. Toncian, S. J. Tracy, A. Trapananti, T. Tschentscher, M. Tyldesley, C. E. Vennari, T. Vinci, S. C. Vogel, T. J. Volz, J. Vorberger, J. P.S. Walsh, J. S. Wark, J. T. Willman, L. Wollenweber, U. Zastrau, E. Brambrink, K. Appel, M. I. McMahon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources coupled to high-power laser systems offer an avenue to study the structural dynamics of materials at extreme pressures and temperatures. The recent commissioning of the DiPOLE 100-X laser on the high energy density (HED) instrument at the European XFEL represents the state-of-the-art in combining x-ray diffraction with laser compression, allowing for compressed materials to be probed in unprecedented detail. Here, we report quantitative structural measurements of molten Sn compressed to 85(5) GPa and ∼ 3500 K. The capabilities of the HED instrument enable liquid density measurements with an uncertainty of ∼ 1 % at conditions which are extremely challenging to reach via static compression methods. We discuss best practices for conducting liquid diffraction dynamic compression experiments and the necessary intensity corrections which allow for accurate quantitative analysis. We also provide a polyimide ablation pressure vs input laser energy for the DiPOLE 100-X drive laser which will serve future users of the HED instrument.

Original languageEnglish
Article number165902
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the European XFEL in Schenefeld, Germany, for provision of x-ray free electron laser beam time at the Scientific Instrument HED (High Energy Density Science) and would like to thank the staff for their assistance. The authors are indebted to the HIBEF user consortium for the provision of instrumentation and staff that enabled this experiment. The data are available upon reasonable request (10.22003/XFEL.EU-DATA-002740-00). Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL (Project No. 21-ERD-032). Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy through the Los Alamos National Laboratory, operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration (Contract No. 89233218CNA000001). Research presented in this Letter was supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Los Alamos National Laboratory under Project No. 20190643DR and at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. This work was supported by Grant Nos. EP/S022155/1 (M.I.M., M.J.D.) and EP/S025065/1 (J.S.W., D.J.P., P.G.W.) from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. J.D.M. is grateful to AWE for the award of CASE Studentship P030463429. P.G.H. acknowledges support from the Oxford Centre for High Energy Density Science (OxCHEDS) under PDRA Contract No. 30469604. E.E.M. and A.D. were supported by the U.K. AH was supported under EP/S023585/1. Research and Innovation Future Leaders Fellowship (No. MR/W008211/1) awarded to E.E.M. D.E. and D.S. from Univ. de Valencia acknowledge financial support by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci\u00F3n (MICINN) and the Agencia Estatal de Investigaci\u00F3n (No. MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033) under Grant Nos. PGC2021-125518NB-I00 and PID2022-138076NB-C41 (cofinanced by EU FEDER funds), and by the Generalitat Valenciana under Grant Nos. CIPROM/2021/075, CIAICO/2021/241, and MFA/2022/007 (funded by Next Generation EU PRTR-C17.I1). N.J.H. and A.G. were supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP No. 100182. G.W.C. and T.-A.S. recognizes support from NSF Physics Frontier Center Award No. PHY-2020249 and support by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award No. DE-NA0003856, the University of ester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. B.M. and R.S.M. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union\u2019s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. 101002868). K.A., K.B., Z.K., H.P.L., R.R., and T.T. acknowledge the DFG for support within the Research Unit FOR 2440. Y.L. is grateful for support from the Leader Researcher program (No. NRF-2018R1A3B1052042) of the Korean Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT). S.M., H.G., and J.C. are funded by the European Union (ERC, HotCores, Grant No. 101054994). Views and opinions expressed are however those of the author(s) only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or the European Research Council. Neither the European Union nor the granting authority can be held responsible for them. The work of D.K., D.R., J.R., and M.S. was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG\u2014German Research Foundation) Project No. 505630685. S.P. acknowledges support from the GOtoXFEL 2023 AAP from CNRS. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission.

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