By the same authors

From the same journal

Single group, pre- and post- research designs: Some methodological concerns

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



Publication details

JournalOxford Review of Education
DateE-pub ahead of print - 2 Oct 2012
DatePublished (current) - Oct 2012
Issue number5
Number of pages33
Pages (from-to)583-616
Early online date2/10/12
Original languageEnglish


This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are plotted against gain scores to demonstrate RTM effects. The second illustration is a methodological review of single group,
pre- and post-test research designs (pre-experiments) that evaluate causal relationships between intervention and outcome. Re-analysis of Marsden’s prior data shows that learners with higher baseline scores consistently made smaller gains than those with lower baseline scores, demonstrating that RTM is clearly observable in single group, pre-post test designs. Our review found that 13% of the sample of 490 articles were evaluation studies. Of these evaluation studies, about half used an experimental design. However, a quarter used a single group, pre-post test design, and researchers using these designs did not mention possible RTM effects in their explanations, although other explanatory factors were mentioned. We conclude by describing how using experimental or quasi-experimental designs would have enabled researchers to explain their findings more accurately, and to draw more useful implications for pedagogy.

    Research areas

  • regression to the mean, research design, METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY, EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION, evaluation research

Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations