By the same authors

From the same journal

Smokeless tobacco initiation, use and cessation in South Asia: a qualitative assessment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • Faraz Siddiqui
  • Ray Croucher
  • Fayaz Ahmad
  • Zarak Ahmed
  • Roshani Babu
  • Linda Bauld
  • Fariza Fieroze
  • Rumana Huque
  • Ian Kellar
  • Anuj Kumar
  • Silwa Lina
  • Maira Mubashir
  • Suzanne Tanya Nethan
  • Narjis Rizvi
  • Kamran Siddiqi
  • Prashant Kumar Singh
  • Heather Thomson
  • Cath Jackson


Publication details

JournalNicotine & tobacco research
DateAccepted/In press - 10 Apr 2021
DateE-pub ahead of print - 12 Apr 2021
DatePublished (current) - 1 Oct 2021
Issue number10
Number of pages4
Pages (from-to)1801-1804
Early online date12/04/21
Original languageEnglish


INTRODUCTION: Smokeless tobacco (ST) is a significant South Asian public health problem. This paper reports a qualitative study of a sample of South Asian ST users. METHODS: Interviews, using a piloted topic guide, with 33 consenting, urban dwelling adult ST users explored their ST initiation, continued use, and cessation attempts. Framework data analysis was used to analyze country specific data before a thematic cross-country synthesis was completed. RESULTS: Participants reported long-term ST use and high dependency. All reported strong cessation motivation and multiple failed attempts because of ease of purchasing ST, tobacco dependency, and lack of institutional support. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to support cessation attempts among consumers of South Asian ST products should address the multiple challenges of developing an integrated ST policy, including cessation services. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides detailed understanding of the barriers and drivers to ST initiation, use, and cessation for users in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. It is the first study to directly compare these three countries. The insight was then used to adapt an existing behavioral support intervention for ST cessation for testing in these countries.

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

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