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Socio-demographic predictors of dimensions of the AUDIT score in a population sample of working-age men in Izhevsk, Russia

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Published copy (DOI)


  • Sarah Cook
  • Bianca De Stavola
  • Lyudmila Saburova
  • Nikolay Kiryanov
  • Maxim Vasiljev
  • Jim McCambridge
  • Martin McKee
  • Olga Polikina
  • Artyom Gil
  • David A Leon


Publication details

JournalAlcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire)
DatePublished - 6 Jul 2011
Issue number6
Number of pages7
Pages (from-to)702-8
Original languageEnglish


AIMS: To investigate the relationship between socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking patterns identified through a formal analysis of the factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score in a population sample of working-age men in Russia.

METHODS: In 2008-2009, a sample of 1005 men aged 25-59 years living in Izhevsk, Russia were interviewed and information collected about socio-demographic circumstances. Responses to the AUDIT questions were obtained through a self-completed questionnaire. Latent dimensions of the AUDIT score were determined using confirmatory factor analysis and expressed as standard deviation (SD) units. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate the strength of association of these dimensions with socio-demographic variables.

RESULTS: The AUDIT was found to have a two-factor structure: alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Both dimensions were higher in men who were unemployed seeking work compared with those in regular paid employment. For consumption, there was a difference of 0.59 SDs, (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23, 0.88) and for alcohol-related problems one of 0.66 SD (95% CI: 0.31, 1.00). Alcohol-related problems were greater among less educated compared with more educated men (P-value for trend = 0.05), while consumption was not related to education. Similar results were found for associations with an amenity index based on car ownership and central heating. Neither dimension was associated with marital status. While we found evidence that the consumption component of AUDIT was underestimated, this did not appear to explain the associations of this dimension with socio-demographic factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Education and amenity index, both measures of socio-economic position, were inversely associated with alcohol-related problems but not with consumption. This discordance suggests that self-reported questions on frequency and volume may be less sensitive markers of socio-economic variation in drinking than are questions about dependence and harm. Further investigation of the validity of the consumption component of AUDIT in Russia is warranted as it appears that the concept of a standard 'drink' as used in the instrument is not understood.

    Research areas

  • Adult, Alcohol Drinking, Alcohol-Related Disorders, Cross-Sectional Studies, Demography, Educational Status, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Questionnaires, Russia, Socioeconomic Factors, Unemployment

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