Sociodemographic, temporal and bedtime routine correlates of sleep timing and duration in South Asian and white children: A Born in Bradford study

Elizabeth Pal*, Jane E. Blackwell, Helen L. Ball, Paul J. Collings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The study aimed to examine sociodemographic, temporal and bedtime routine correlates of parent-reported sleep duration and timing in a biethnic sample of 18 month and 36 month old children from a disadvantaged location. Methods: Between October 2010 and September 2012, parents completed a bespoke three day sleep diary when their child was approximately 18 months (n = 276) and 36 months of age (n = 262) (45.1% South Asian; 54.9% white). Parents reported their child's overnight sleep duration (h/day), the time their child fell asleep, their wake time and their child's bedtime and napping routines. Data were available at both time points for 135 children. Results: In line with previous literature, South Asian children had shorter overnight sleep duration and later sleep and wake times than white children. In both ethnic groups, children slept and woke up later on weekends, and children went to bed earlier and slept longer in winter. In white children only, napping duration was associated with overnight sleep period. No significant associations were found between napping frequency and overnight sleep duration. Based on parent-reported data, children who consistently adhered to regular bedtimes and had set times for sleeping tended to go to sleep earlier, wake earlier and have longer overnight sleep. Conclusions: The data showed parent-reported variation in sleep patterns between two ethnic groups within a single geographical and deprived area. It is important that researchers, clinicians and early years workers are considerate of cultural norms in sleep practices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100068
Number of pages10
JournalSleep Medicine: X
Early online date28 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Born in Bradford study receives core infrastructure funding from the Wellcome Trust (grant number: WT101597MA ), a joint grant from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and UK Economic and Social Science Research Council (ESRC) ( MR/N024397/1 ), the British Heart Foundation (BHF) ( CS/16/4/32482 ), and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Yorkshire and Humber . This study received delivery support from the NIHR Clinical Research Network . Paul J Collings is funded by a BHF Immediate Postdoctoral Basic Science Research Fellowship ( FS/17/37/32937 ). The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the MRC , ESRC , BHF , NIHR , and UK Department of Health or National Health Services or of any other funder acknowledged here.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors


  • Ethnic groups
  • Pediatrics
  • Routine
  • Sleep duration
  • Sleep timing

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