Solid-State 19F NMR Chemical Shift in Square-Planar Nickel-Fluoride Complexes Linked by Halogen Bonds

Abril C. Castro*, Michele Cascella, Robin N. Perutz, Christophe Raynaud*, Odile Eisenstein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The halogen bond (XB) is a highly directional class of noncovalent interactions widely explored by experimental and computational studies. However, the NMR signature of the XB has attracted limited attention. The prediction and analysis of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) chemical shift tensor provide useful strategies to better understand XB interactions. In this work, we employ a computational protocol for modeling and analyzing the 19F SSNMR chemical shifts previously measured in a family of square-planar trans NiII-L2-iodoaryl-fluoride (L = PEt3) complexes capable of forming self-complementary networks held by a NiF···I(C) halogen bond [ Thangavadivale, V. ; Chem. Sci. 2018, 9, 3767−3781 ]. To understand how the 19F NMR resonances of the nickel-bonded fluoride are affected by the XB, we investigate the origin of the shielding in trans-[NiF(2,3,5,6-C6F4I)(PEt3)2], trans-[NiF(2,3,4,5-C6F4I)(PEt3)2], and trans-[NiF(C6F5)(PEt3)2] in the solid state, where a XB is present in the two former systems but not in the last. We perform the 19F NMR chemical shift calculations both in periodic and molecular models. The results show that the crystal packing has little influence on the NMR signatures of the XB, and the NMR can be modeled successfully with a pair of molecules interacting via the XB. Thus, the observed difference in chemical shift between solid-state and solution NMR can be essentially attributed to the XB interaction. The very high shielding of the fluoride and its driving contributor, the most shielded component of the chemical shift tensor, are well reproduced at the 2c-ZORA level. Analysis of the factors controlling the shielding shows how the highest occupied Ni/F orbitals shield the fluoride in the directions perpendicular to the Ni-F bond and specifically perpendicular to the coordination plane. This shielding arises from the magnetic coupling of the Ni(3d)/F(2p lone pair) orbitals with the vacant σNi-F* orbital, thereby rationalizing the very highly upfield (shielded) resonance of the component (δ33) along this direction. We show that these features are characteristic of square-planar nickel-fluoride complexes. The deshielding of the fluoride in the halogen-bonded systems is attributed to an increase in the energy gap between the occupied and vacant orbitals that are mostly responsible for the paramagnetic terms, notably along the most shielded direction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4835-4846
Number of pages12
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support from the Norwegian Research Council (grant no. 325231 and Centre of Excellence grant no. 262695) and the Norwegian Metacenter for Computational Science (NOTUR) through a grant of computer time (nn4654k). They are grateful to Professor Marie-Liesse Doublet (ICGM, Montpellier) for useful advice in using CRYSTAL.

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