Solvent effects in palladium catalysed cross-coupling reactions

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Palladium catalysed cross-couplings reactions have been a dominant method in synthetic chemistry for decades. Despite this, the role of the solvent is often taken for granted and poorly understood. Regulations affecting some the most frequently used solvents for cross-coupling reactions are accelerating current trends towards using new types of solvents. In this review, the fundamental interactions between solvent and catalyst are explained so that it may inform the rational selection of high performance and safe solvents. The popular cross-coupling methodologies are addressed (Suzuki, Stille, Kumada, Negishi, Hiyama, Heck, Sonogashira, and Buchwald–Hartwig reactions) and novel solvents introduced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2164-2213
Number of pages50
JournalGreen Chemistry
Early online date8 Apr 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Apr 2019

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© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2019. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.


  • palladium
  • catalysis
  • solvents

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