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Specificity of reading self-efficacy among primary school children

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  • Pilvi Peura
  • Helena J. K. Viholainen
  • Tuija I. Aro
  • Eija M. Raikkonen
  • Ellen L. Usher
  • Riikka M. A. Sorvo
  • Robert Mark Klassen
  • Mikko T. Aro


Publication details

JournalJournal of experimental education
DateAccepted/In press - 19 Sep 2018
DateE-pub ahead of print - 24 Nov 2018
DatePublished (current) - 5 Jun 2019
Issue number3
Number of pages21
Pages (from-to)496-516
Early online date24/11/18
Original languageEnglish


We investigated the specificity of reading self-efficacy among second- to fifth-grade children in Finland (N=1,327). Bandura (1997) theorized that efficacy beliefs can be assessed at different levels of specificity; however, empirical support for this view is scarce among young children. Efficacy beliefs targeting reading-related activities were assessed at three specificity levels (general, intermediate, and specific). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that these specificity levels are separable, but correlated, and the structure was invariant across gender and grade level. Self-efficacy factors were positively associated with reading fluency, but the strength of these associations varied according to specificity level. Findings suggest that reading self-efficacy in primary grades can and should be assessed at different specificity levels according to research aims

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© 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.

    Research areas

  • Self-efficacy, beliefs, elementary schools, reading, reading fluency

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