Stochastic hybrid embodied CO2-eq analysis: An application to the Irish apartment building sector

Adolf A. Acquaye, Aidan P. Duffy, Biswajit Basu

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Although embodied CO2-eq analysis has seen recent developments as evident in the establishment of the ISO 14040 and 14044 LCA standards, it is recognized that due to weaknesses in gathering data on product-related emissions, embodied CO2-eq values are probabilistic. This paper presents a stochastic analysis of hybrid embodied CO2-eq in buildings to account for this weakness in traditional methods and, by way of example, applies it to an Irish construction-sector case study. Using seven apartment buildings, 70,000 results are simulated with Monte Carlo analysis and used to derive probabilistic and cumulative embodied CO2-eq intensity distributions for apartment buildings in Ireland. A Wakeby distribution with known statistical parameters and uncertainty was derived for the average embodied CO2-eq intensity of apartment building in Ireland. The mean hybrid embodied CO2-eq (ECO2-eq) intensity was estimated to be 1636 gCO(2)-eq/(sic) with an uncertainty of 73 gCO(2)-eq/(sic). The stochastic analysis helps to account for variability in input variables into embodied CO2-eq analysis. The application of the stochastic embodied CO2-eq analysis as demonstrated in this study can be extended to other building sectors and countries and can form the basis for the development of evidence-based policy formulation since it provides greater information on embodied CO2-eq intensities of buildings than deterministic approaches. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1295-1303
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy and buildings
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011


  • Hybrid embodied CO2-eq
  • Stochastic analysis
  • Construction sub-sector
  • Apartment buildings
  • Probabilistic and cumulative distributions
  • Monte Carlo analysis

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