Sustainable bio-based solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of various types of organic compounds

Mustafa Zafer Özel*, James H. Clark, Avtar S. Matharu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A sustainable, bio-based, mesoporous material, Starbon A800, was explored for use as an adsorbent in solid phase extraction (SPE). A solution containing seven nitrosamines was first used as a standard to optimise conditions for extraction efficiency with Starbon A800. After optimising conditions, 25 compounds of varying polarity (terpenes, phenolics, pesticides, PAHs, amines, and nitrosamines) were extracted with SPE using either Starbon® A800, C18 or Porous Graphitic Carbon (PGC) as the adsorbent, for comparison purposes. At the same time, 3 different elution solvents (heptane, dichloromethane, and ethanol) were used for each type of adsorbent. Hansen solubility parameters can be used to choose an appropriate elution solvent for the selected SPE adsorbent. The best average SPE recoveries found for the 25 various compounds were 83%, 79%, and 65% using Starbon A800, PGC, and C18 adsorbents respectively and these had dichloromethane as the elution solvent. The identification and quantification of components was carried out using UV-visible spectroscopy, two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) with time of flight/mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) or a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). The optimized method was successfully applied to extract volatile organic compounds from red wine and tap water using Starbon A800. Starbon A800 was shown to be a promising, low-cost, green, scalable, alternative adsorbent for the extraction of various types of organic compounds of a wide range of polarities using SPE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-49
Number of pages14
JournalTurkish Journal of Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note



  • Adsorbent
  • gas chromatography
  • solid phase extraction
  • Starbon A800
  • UV-visible spectroscopy

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