Teachers' attitudes towards integration/inclusion: A review of the literature

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


  • B. Norwich
  • E. Avramidis


Publication details

JournalEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
DatePublished - Jun 2002
Issue number2
Number of pages18
Pages (from-to)129-147
Original languageEnglish


On the assumption that the successful implementation of any inclusive policy is largely dependent on educators being positive about it, a great deal of research has sought to examine teachers' attitudes towards the integration and, more recently, the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the mainstream school. This paper reviews this large body of research and, in so doing, explores a host of factors that might impact upon teacher acceptance of the inclusion principle. The analyses showed evidence of positive attitudes, but no evidence of acceptance of a total inclusion or 'zero reject' approach to special educational provision. Teachers' attitudes were found to be strongly influenced by the nature and severity of the disabling condition presented to them (child-related variables) and less by teacher-related variables. Further, educational environment-related variables, such as the availability of physical and human support, were consistently found to be associated with attitudes to inclusion. After a brief discussion of critical methodological issues germane to the research findings, the paper provides directions for future research based on alternative methodologies.

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