By the same authors

From the same journal

The Benefits of Targeted Memory Reactivation for Consolidation in Sleep Are Contingent on Memory Accuracy and Direct Cue-Memory Associations: Sleep and Memory Reactivation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle



Publication details

DateAccepted/In press - 12 Jan 2016
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 1 Feb 2016
Early online date1/02/16
Original languageEnglish


Study Objectives: To investigate how the effects of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) are influenced by memory accuracy prior to sleep and the presence or absence of direct cue-memory associations.

Design: Fifty pictures were each associated with an unrelated word and then with a screen location in two separate tasks. During picture-location training, each picture was also presented with a semantically related sound. The sounds were therefore directly associated with the picture locations but indirectly associated with the words. During a subsequent nap, half of the sounds were replayed in SWS (TMR). The impact of TMR on memory for the picture locations (direct cue-memory associations) and picture-word pairs (indirect cue-memory associations) was then examined.

Setting: Sleep, Language and Memory Laboratory, University of York, UK.

Participants: 30 adults; 14 male (mean ± SD age, 19.87 ± 1.94 years).

Interventions: TMR in SWS.

Measurements and Results: TMR reduced overall memory decay for recall of picture locations. Further analyses revealed a benefit of TMR for picture locations recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep, but not those recalled with a high degree of accuracy. The benefit of TMR for low accuracy memories was predicted by time spent in SWS. There was no benefit of TMR for memory of the picture-word pairs, irrespective of memory accuracy prior to sleep.

Conclusions: TMR provides the greatest benefit to memories recalled with a low degree of accuracy prior to sleep. The memory benefits of TMR may also be contingent on direct cue-memory associations.

Bibliographical note

© 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies. Date of Acceptance: 12/01/2016

    Research areas

  • Memory, Reactivation, Consolidation, Slow-wave sleep


Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations