The Biorefinery Concept: An Integrated Approach

James Clark*, Fabien Deswarte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


An ideal renewable resource is one that can be replenished over a relatively short timescale or is essentially limitless in supply. Improved resource utilisation can positively influence the profits of industry as well as enable new companies to start up, produce new growth and expand innovation opportunities by moving towards the ultimate sustainability goal of a zero-waste circular economy. Green chemistry emerged in the 1990s as a movement dedicated to the development of more environmentally benign alternatives to hazardous and wasteful chemical processes as a result of the increased awareness in industry of the costs of waste and of government regulations requiring cleaner chemical manufacturing. Three different types of biorefinery have been described in the literature: Phase I biorefinery (single feedstock, single process and single major product), Phase II biorefinery (single feedstock, multiple processes and multiple major products) and Phase III biorefinery (multiple feedstocks, multiple processes and multiple major products).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntroduction to Chemicals from Biomass
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9781118714478
ISBN (Print)9781118714485
Publication statusPublished - 26 Dec 2014


  • Biorefinery
  • Government regulations
  • Green chemistry
  • Renewable resource

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