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The calcium sensor STIM1 is regulated by androgens in prostate stromal cells

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JournalThe Prostate
DatePublished - Nov 2011
Issue number15
Volume71
Number of pages10
Pages (from-to)1646-1655
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prostate development and maintenance in the adult results from an interaction of stromal and glandular components. Androgens can drive this process by direct action on the stroma. We investigated whether there was a direct link between androgens and another key regulator of stromal cells, intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ](i) ). METHODS: Prostate stromal cells were freshly obtained and cultures derived from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Gene expression in dihydrotestosterone treated and untreated cells was compared using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Ca(2+) regulated features were identified by Gene Ontology (GO). Changes in [Ca(2+) ](i) were determined in Fluo-4 loaded cells. Androgen regulation was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitaion. RESULTS: Stromal cell cultures were sorted for expression of integrin a(1) ß(1) , which enriched for cells expressing the androgen receptor (AR). We identified key functional categories, within the androgen-induced gene expression signature, focusing on genes involved in calcium signaling. From this analysis, stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1) was identified as a significantly differentially expressed gene with four relevant associated GO terms. DNA sequence analysis showed that the promoter region of STIM1 contained putative androgen response element sequences in which AR binding ability of STIM1 was confirmed. Androgens directly regulated STIM1 expression and STIM1 effects on store-operated calcium entry were inhibited by STIM1 knock-down. Reduced STIM1 expression in prostate stromal cells led to a reduction in basal Ca(2+) levels, the amount of Ca(2+) released by thapsigargin and a reduction in store filling following TG-induced store depletion. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that androgens modulate [Ca(2+) ](i) through the direct regulation of the STIM1 gene by AR binding to the STIM1 promoter. Prostate © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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