By the same authors

From the same journal

The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Full text download(s)


  • Mark van Kleunen
  • Franz Essl
  • Jan Pergl
  • Giuseppe Brundu
  • Marta Carboni
  • Stefan Dullinger
  • Regan Isabella Early
  • Pablo González-Moreno
  • Quentin J. Groom
  • P. Hulme
  • Christoph Kueffer
  • Ingolf Kühn
  • Cristina Máguas
  • Noëlie Maurel
  • Ana Novoa
  • Madalin Parepa
  • Petr Pyšek
  • Hanno Seebens
  • Rob Tanner
  • Laura N H Verbrugge
  • Ewald Weber
  • Wayne Dawson
  • H Kreft
  • Patrick Weigelt
  • Marten Winter
  • Gunther Klonner
  • Matthew Talluto


Publication details

JournalBiological reviews
DateAccepted/In press - 5 Feb 2018
DatePublished (current) - 5 Mar 2018
Number of pages17
Original languageEnglish


The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged. Since then, cultivated alien species also started to appear in the wild more frequently than non-cultivated aliens globally, particularly during the 19th century. Horticulture still plays a prominent role in current plant introduction, and the monetary value of live-plant imports in different parts of the world is steadily increasing. Historically, botanical gardens – an important component of horticulture – played a major role in displaying, cultivating and distributing new plant discoveries. While the role of botanical gardens in the horticultural supply chain has declined, they are still a significant link, with one-third of institutions involved in retail-plant sales and horticultural research. However, botanical gardens have also become more dependent on commercial nurseries as plant sources, particularly in North America. Plants selected for ornamental purposes are not a random selection of the global flora, and some of the plant characteristics promoted through horticulture, such as fast growth, also promote invasion. Efforts to breed non-invasive plant cultivars are still rare. Socio-economical, technological, and environmental changes will lead to novel patterns of plant introductions and invasion opportunities for the species that are already cultivated. We describe the role that horticulture could play in mediating these changes. We identify current research challenges, and call for more research efforts on the past and current role of horticulture in plant invasions. This is required to develop science-based regulatory frameworks to prevent further plant invasions.

Bibliographical note

This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details

    Research areas

  • botanical gardens, climate change, Horticulture, naturalised plants, ornamental plants, plant invasions, plant nurseries, trade, weeds

Discover related content

Find related publications, people, projects, datasets and more using interactive charts.

View graph of relations