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From the same journal

The economic burden of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis in people living with HIV in Brazil: a cost study from the patient perspective

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Published copy (DOI)



Publication details

JournalPublic Health
DateAccepted/In press - 16 Dec 2017
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 11 Mar 2018
Number of pages6
Pages (from-to)31-36
Early online date11/03/18
Original languageEnglish


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) (active and latent TB [LTB]) and HIV co-infection from the patient perspective.

STUDY DESIGN: Costing study conducted alongside a pragmatic clinical trial.

METHODS: The study was conducted in Brazil in a referral service for HIV/AIDS. We applied a standardised questionnaire to collect data about out-of-pocket expenses and indirect cost. The questionnaire was applied at every patient's appointment in the referral service after TB or LTB diagnosis. We followed all patients' pathways during the prediagnosis period and treatment period. For patients on sickness benefit due to TB/HIV, income loss was calculated as the difference between an employee's wages forgone and the sickness benefit received. The monetary value of the time loss was calculated based on the Brazilian minimum wage/2015.

RESULTS: Among 239 people living with HIV recruited in the first year of the trial, 31 patients were included into the costing study, 26 patients who were diagnosed and treated for TB/HIV and five patients who were diagnosed and treated for LTB/HIV. TB/HIV patients incurred higher total costs than LTB/HIV (US$ 1,429 vs US$ 166). The main cost component for TB/HIV was indirect costs, especially income loss (US$ 749).

CONCLUSIONS: Public health policies may address ways to prevent high patients' costs through the introduction of more accurate algorithms for TB diagnosis to prevent delays in the diagnosis and treatment.

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Adolescent, Adult, Brazil/epidemiology, Coinfection, Cost of Illness, Costs and Cost Analysis, Female, HIV Infections/epidemiology, Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data, Humans, Latent Tuberculosis/economics, Male, Middle Aged, Surveys and Questionnaires, Tuberculosis/economics, Young Adult

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