By the same authors

From the same journal

The Economic Costs of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Associated Complications in South Asia: A Systematic Review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


  • Ian F Walker
  • Fredrike Garbe
  • Judy Wright
  • Ian Newell
  • Naveen Athiraman
  • Nida Khan
  • Helen Elsey


Publication details

JournalValue in Health Regional Issues
DateAccepted/In press - 1 May 2017
DateE-pub ahead of print - 3 Jul 2017
DatePublished (current) - May 2018
Number of pages15
Pages (from-to)12-26
Early online date3/07/17
Original languageEnglish


BACKGROUND: More than 80% of global deaths caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) occur in developing countries. The burden of noncommunicable disease in South Asia is increasing rapidly.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs of CVD and the costs of DM to individuals and society in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

METHODS: We systematically searched six health and economic databases for studies identifying costs related to CVD or DM and their respective complications. Costs were extracted from included studies and converted to US $ for the price year 2015 to enable meaningful comparisons.

RESULTS: Of the 71 articles suitable for full-text review, 29 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were cost-of-illness studies (n = 27) and were from the patient perspective (n = 23). Most collected data since 2000 (n = 23) and included data from India (n = 24). No studies included longitudinal costs at the patient level. Medical costs for routine management of CVD and DM were broadly similar. These costs escalate significantly once complications occur, which require treatment, particularly for stroke, major coronary events, and amputations. Costs are mainly borne by the individual and family. Some included studies modeled rapidly rising future costs. Most studies included had methodological weaknesses.

CONCLUSIONS: Marked increases in costs have been identified when complications of these chronic diseases occur, underlining the importance of secondary prevention approaches in disease management in South Asia. Higher quality studies, especially those that include longitudinal costs, are required to establish more robust cost estimates.

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

    Research areas

  • Asia, Western, Cardiovascular Diseases/complications, Chronic Disease, Cost of Illness, Developing Countries, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications, Humans

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