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The half-life of DNA in bone: measuring decay kinetics in 158 dated fossils

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Author(s)

  • Morten E. Allentoft
  • Matthew Collins
  • David Harker
  • James Haile
  • Charlotte L. Oskam
  • Marie L. Hale
  • Paula F. Campos
  • Jose A. Samaniego
  • M. Thomas P. Gilbert
  • Eske Willerslev
  • Guojie Zhang
  • R. Paul Scofield
  • Richard N. Holdaway
  • Michael Bunce

Department/unit(s)

Publication details

JournalPROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
DateE-pub ahead of print - 10 Oct 2012
DatePublished (current) - 7 Dec 2012
Issue number1748
Volume279
Number of pages10
Pages (from-to)4724-4733
Early online date10/10/12
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Claims of extreme survival of DNA have emphasized the need for reliable models of DNA degradation through time. By analysing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 158 radiocarbon-dated bones of the extinct New Zealand moa, we confirm empirically a long-hypothesized exponential decay relationship. The average DNA half-life within this geographically constrained fossil assemblage was estimated to be 521 years for a 242 bp mtDNA sequence, corresponding to a per nucleotide fragmentation rate (k) of 5.50 x 10(-6) per year. With an effective burial temperature of 13.18 degrees C, the rate is almost 400 times slower than predicted from published kinetic data of in vitro DNA depurination at pH 5. Although best described by an exponential model (R-2 = 0.39), considerable sample-to-sample variance in DNA preservation could not be accounted for by geologic age. This variation likely derives from differences in taphonomy and bone diagenesis, which have confounded previous, less spatially constrained attempts to study DNA decay kinetics. Lastly, by calculating DNA fragmentation rates on Illumina HiSeq data, we show that nuclear DNA has degraded at least twice as fast as mtDNA. These results provide a baseline for predicting long-term DNA survival in bone.

    Research areas

  • aDNA, MISCODING LESIONS, decay kinetics, DNA half-life, SEQUENCE, PRESERVATION, LONG-TERM SURVIVAL, MAMMOTH DNA, ANCIENT DNA, AMPLIFICATION, DNA degradation, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES, NEW-ZEALAND

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