The Impact of Frailty and Comorbidities on Heart Failure Outcomes

Thomas Salmon, Hani Essa, Behnam Tajik, Masoud Isanejad, Asangaedem Akpan, Rajiv Sankaranarayanan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Frailty is a multisystemic process leading to reduction of physiological reserve and a reduction in physical activity. Heart failure (HF) is recognised as a global cause of morbidity and mortality, increasing in prevalence over recent decades. Because of shared phenotypes and comorbidities, there is significant overlap and a bidirectional relationship, with frail patients being at increased risk of developing HF and vice versa. Despite this, frailty is not routinely assessed in patients with HF. Identification of these patients to direct multidisciplinary care is key, and the development of a frailty assessment tool validated in a large HF population is also an unmet need that would be of considerable benefit in directing multidisciplinary-team management. Non-pharmacological treatment should be included, as exercise and physical rehabilitation programmes offer dual benefit in frail HF patients, by treating both conditions simultaneously. The evidence for nutritional supplementation is mixed, but there is evidence that a personalised approach to nutritional support in frail HF patients can improve outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere07
JournalCardiac failure review
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2022

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