The olfactory bulb is a source of high-frequency oscillations (130–180 Hz) associated with a subanesthetic dose of ketamine in rodents

Mark Jeremy Hunt, Natalie Elizabeth Adams, Wladyslaw Sredniawa, Daniel K Wojcik, Anna Maria Simon, Stefan Kasicki, Miles Adrian Whittington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


High-frequency neuronal population oscillations (HFO, 130–180 Hz) are robustly potentiated by subanesthetic doses of ketamine. This frequency band has been recorded in functionally and neuroanatomically diverse cortical and subcortical regions, notably ventral striatal areas. However, the locus of generation remains largely unknown. There is compelling evidence that olfactory regions can drive oscillations in distant areas. Here we tested the hypothesis that the olfactory bulb (OB) is a locus for the generation of HFO following a subanesthetic dose of ketamine. The effect of ketamine on the electrophysiological activity of the OB and ventral striatum of male Wistar rats was examined using field potential and unit recordings, local inhibition, naris blockade, current source density and causality estimates. Ketamine-HFO was of larger magnitude and was phase-advanced in the OB relative to ventral striatum. Granger causality analysis was consistent with the OB as the source of HFO. Unilateral local inhibition of the OB and naris blockade both attenuated HFO recorded locally and in the ventral striatum. Within the OB, current source density analysis revealed HFO current dipoles close to the mitral layer and unit firing of mitral/tufted cells was phase locked to HFO. Our results reveal the OB as a source of ketamine-HFO which can contribute to HFO in the ventral striatum, known to project diffusely to many other brain regions. These findings provide a new conceptual understanding on how changes in olfactory system function may have implications for neurological disorders involving NMDA receptor dysfunction such as schizophrenia and depression.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2018

Bibliographical note

©American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2018

Cite this